Inoperable rectal tumour, no metastases: A radio-chemotherapy with a favourable response surgery B radio-chemotherapy with a non-favourable response crioterapie veruci Operable rectal tumour, with metastases: radical surgery of the tumour with resection of the hepatic or lung metastasis radio-chemotherapy radio-chemotherapy followed by surgical treatment.
Non-operable rectal tumour with metastases: chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We must remember that the rectum is a fix organ, that represents an advantage for the irradiation process.
The preoperative irradiation has the advantage of preventing the excessive irradiation of other cavity organs, as in the case of the postoperative irradiation, when the small bowel loops drop in the pelvis. This protocol has been established starting from the actual knowledge regarding the genetics rectal cancer in lymph nodes rectal cancer, and also the studies of fundamental and clinical research which analyzed the response of the rectal cancer to different treatment methods.
The oncogenesis is determined by the alternation of the cellular cycle, and initiates the appearance of angiogenesis. Citokines such as the fibroblastic growth factor, the endothelial growth factor, angiogenin and interleukin 8 mediate and are the promoters of angiogenesis. Those are produced by the tumor cells, T lymphocytes and by other stromal cells. Also, the macrophages and the tumor cells produce urokinase plasminogen activatorwhich favours angiogenesis. The tumour angiogenesis is responsible for the tumour behaviour, lymphatic metastases and the distant metastases.
The genetic studies have shown that mutations in the p53 suppressor gene may determine the cell production of inhibitors of the apoptosis, which make the tumour cells resistant to chemo-radiotherapy. The evaluation of the status of the p53 gene might allow the appreciation of the tumour aggressiveness in case of a partially located lesion, the response to PCT 5FUthe survival after curative resection, and of the prognostic 2. It is a known fact that the tissue response to irradiation depends of: The cellular apoptosis through disruptions at the DNA level and through the production of free oxygen radicals.
The cellular destructions analiza pentru paraziti intestinali affect tumour proliferation. The fibrosis and the densification of the rectal wall.
The obliterating arteritis through hyalinisation process. The blockage of the cells which block the apoptosis.
Colorectal cancer lymph nodes, Rectal cancer with lymph node involvement.
The destruction of the micro-angiogenesis network. It must be remembered that hypoxia decreases the destruction of the tumour cells. The different response to radiotherapy is conditioned by several factors: The tumour dimensions The cellular phenotype The tumour angiogenesis. The hpv virus how is it transmitted of the peri-tumour inflammatory infiltrate - the tumours with mixt infiltrate have a better prognosis.
The intra-tumour microvascular density the greatest number of vascular lumen without a muscular wall in an objective field 40X.
Probleme actuale privind aplicarea protocolului de tratament în cancerul de rect
The response to radio-chemotherapy may be appreciated: Macroscopic: Rectal cancer in lymph nodes decrease of the tumour dimensions Conversions to a more inferior stage. The post-radiotherapy regression reaction was quantified by Bazzetti inwho rectal cancer in lymph nodes 5 degrees of regression of the rectal tumour after radiotherapy. R5 - the absence of the regression. A good response to R2 radiotherapy almost complete regression was achieved in nearly Therefore, we can say that the radiotherapy response was correlated directly with the initial stage of the disease, being favourable for patients rectal cancer in lymph nodes stage II of evolution and weak for those in stage III 3.
Under these conditions, a very important problem is the identification of the degree of response to radiotherapy of the tumour and also to the metastases potential, as long-term radiotherapy lasts approximately 4 weeks, to which one may add around a minimum of weeks until the moment in which the patient will be operated on, a total of weeks.
If the tumour has a low potential for the radiotherapy response, but a high potential for metastases, the benefit of radiotherapy will be decreased and the risk of metastasis will increase exponentially, taking into account the fact that radiotherapy is a form of local treatment and does not prevent metastases.
It is to be noticed that the data of the genetic studies are inconstant and have not allowed so far the identification of a genetic marker of predisposition of the rectal tumours to radio-chemotherapy. Another problem that we would like to analyze is regarded to the attitude towards the patients with an R1 response in the Bazetti classification. In the treatment guide of the Ministry of Health for colorectal carcinoma in stage I TNM TN0M0it is mentioned that, in carefully selected cases which are correctly staged preoperatively, in centres with tratamentul paraziților interni umani, one might choose local transanal resection, exclusive radiotherapy or a combination between radiotherapy and limited surgery.
The post-radiotherapy regression R0 and its follow-up wait-and-see has the advantage that the patients are spared the complications of surgery and there are two studies mentioned Habr-Gama et al. Nevertheless, we must state the fact that the surgical treatment in rectal cancer may assume the following complications: Abdominal perineal resection: Impair of the sexual activity Decrease of the quality of life Para-stomal hernia. One must remember that the physiologic mechanisms of defecation are the more affected as the resection descends at the level of the rectum, so that in the case of ultralow resections and in those with colo-anal anastomosis, they are completely disappeared.
Some of these potential complications induce a big discomfort for the viermi la inima la om and produce a degree of invalidity. They may represent reasons for accusation of malpraxis in the case of a patient in which the anatomical specimen does no longer contain tumour tissue after radiotherapy, rectal cancer in lymph nodes which in the postoperative period remains one of the downfalls of the surgery of the rectum.
It is a reason why the studies regarding this conservative approach have continued. Therefore, a study from Maas et al. In batch II - 20 patients who completely responded from another batch had resection. Only one patient in batch I presented with local relapse after 25 months, being resolved through surgical treatment.
After complete information of the patient regarding the protocol and the surgical complications of the abdominal perineal resection and of the low and ultralow rectal resections, the 4 patients without parietal lesions and without identifiable nodes post radiotherapy have opted for clinical follow-up, denying the surgical treatment.
Five patients were operated on: Four patients with remaining lesions batch II. One patient with lymph nodes at the level of the mesorectum, but without a remaining lesion at the level of the rectal wall batch I.
The pathology exam: In the patient with increased lymph node noticed on MRI post-RT, a cancerous lesion was confirmed at the level of the lymph node. In the 4 patients with a remaining lesion an induration of the wall or different degrees of stenosisno tumour cells were identified.
The patients were re-biopsied after radiotherapy. The evolution of the non-operated patients after radiotherapy: One patient with liver metastases after enumerați paraziții ciudați year, treated with radiofrequency ablation and chemotherapy without any relapse or a continuation of evolution 3 years after radiofrequency ablation.
Three patients with favorable outcome with no local recurrence or metastasis to 4, 3 and 2 years of diagnosis after the diagnosis. The evolution of the patients with a complete response who were operated on: One patient with liver metastases at 1 year postoperatively through radio-ablation and resection plus chemotherapy.
Four patients with a favourable evolution 3 patients: abdominal-perineal resection, 1 patient: a resection plus anastomosis. After correlating the data from our own experience with data from literature, we consider that, in order to apply the non operative treatment strategy wait-and-seethe patient must meet the following criteria: 1.
Probleme actuale privind aplicarea protocolului de tratament în cancerul de rect
The lack of the lesion at the level of the rectal mucosa post-radiotherapy or small ulcerations with a negative biopsy. The absence of the lesions at the level of the rectal wall and of the increased lymph nodes at the MRI exam, and on the post-radiotherapy rectal ultrasound 6. The absence of the increased lymph node with cancer characteristics in the mesorectum pre-radiotherapy.
Laparoscopic Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection for Rectal Cancer
Conclusions 1. The radiotherapy response is an obvious factor for the local evolution.
Colorectal cancer lymph nodes. Metastatic cancer lymph nodes, Metastatic cancer and lymph nodes
Radiotherapy does not influence and may worsen the distant evolution with metastases through the delay of other associated treatment, surgery or chemotherapy. Because, so far, we do not have a biologic, histologic or genetic marker, in order to predict the tumour response of rectal tumors to radio-chemotherapy it is necessary to: Establish an angiogenesis score which correlates with the tumour regression judged by the tumour volume, the depth of the invasion, the incidence of the local and distal metastases.
The role of chemotherapy in this context will have to be reevaluated in correlation with the angiogenesis score taken pre- and postoperatively. The attentive follow-up of the patients with a complete response to radiotherapy respects the criteria aforementioned, allows to avoid the surgical treatment and protects from the complications of the low and ultralow anastomoses, and the non-benefit of the abdominal-perineal resection of the rectum.
In order to implement an attitude as such, it is compulsory to respect a treatment protocol for the post-radiotherapy evaluation, such as: Clinical rectal examination. Rectoscopy with biopsy in patients with small ulcerations or small scars at the level of the mucosa. The pelvic MRI exam. The trans-rectal ultrasound must certify the absence of the cancer lesions at the level of the rectal wall and at the level wart treatment cream the lymph nodes.
The biology and paraclinical investigations are included in follow-up protocols of the patient with a rectal neoplasm, for 5 years. In the process of the decision making, the patient has an important role: after the correct communication of the possibility of evolution rectal cancer in lymph nodes the case of the non-surgery, but also of rectal cancer in lymph nodes possible complications of the surgical treatment in the case of medium and inferior rectal tumours, he may opt for the watchful waiting.
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Eliescu, R. Buzatu, I. Ştefan, E. Bratucu, D. Rectal cancer in lymph nodes, L. Puiu, C. Post-radiotherapy regression - a prognostic factor in rectal neoplasm.
Chirurgia Nr. Habr-Gama A, et al. Complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemo-radiation for rectal cancer in lymph nodes rectal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. Maas M et al. Wait-and-see policy for clinical complete responders after chemo-radiation for rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. Marincaş, V. Prunoiu, E. Bratucu, C. Cirimbei, S. Ionescu, R. Buzatu, N. Clinical and paraclinical criteria of patient selection for the non-operative treatment in completely responsive rectal cancer after neo-adjuvant radio-chemotherapy.